Isaac Asimov is one of the most prominent and prolific science-fiction writers in history. He also wrote much of his work during the Cold War, which prompted him to explore the fears of nuclear war and the threat it posed to society, while also observing the burgeoning science of space travel.
His work is typified by "hard science-fiction", meaning it uses very structured and explainable science-fiction principles. Because of this, he derives most of his works from the world around him, extrapolating the technology to a far distant future. An excellent example of how his work exemplifies rocketry and nuclear weaponry is the Foundation series.
Taking place in a far-flung galaxy millennia in the future, society is plunged into dark ages across the hundreds of populated planets. The society of Foundation, a planet that was designed to harbor the intellectual pursuits of humanity and shorten the dark ages, guards the secret to developing nuclear power and weaponry. They use it as a weapon but most often as a threat to keep other societies in line and power their rockets with it. They become more technologically advanced, with faster ships than everyone else's traditional chemical rockets, and they can travel through the galaxy with ease.