What is the psychological theme of Adam Bede?

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Broadly speaking, Adam Bede is a novel about morality and the struggle to discern what is "right" and to act upon it. From a psychological standpoint, this takes the shape in Hetty and Adam, and even to an extent in Donnithorne, as an internal struggle between desire and morality. This internal struggle is made manifest in many ways in the novel and forms a basis for its critique of class and gender issues.

The central problem of the book, in some ways, is Hetty's beauty, which is described as "a beauty with which you can never be angry, but that you feel ready to crush for inability to comprehend the state of mind into which it throws you." Hetty is conscious of her prettiness but unaware, perhaps, of her sexuality or how her beauty affects men; her desire for Donnithorne's status clouds her ability to accept Adam Bede's love for her. It is only after her sexual initiation by Donnithorne, her pregnancy, and the death of her baby, that she becomes conscious of the moral implications of what she has done.

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I wouldn't say there is a "psychological theme" to Adam Bede so much as there is a psychological mindset that infuses the themes of work ethic, personal integrity, and the power of love.

As for work ethic, Eliot rewards characters like the peasants who are not only hard-working, but the results of their efforts produce tangible results (milling, farming, etc.)  Conversely, "bad" characters are slothful and unproductive.  Thus, psychological commitment of characters to be useful or wasteful is a part of what makes them who they are.

A character's ability to either give or receive love also is a component of his psychology.   Here, Eliot's characters are allowed (or given the opportunity) to grow.  The character Hetty is an example of emotional and psychological growth, as she realizes the errors of her ways, opens her heart, and transforms her thinking.  Thus, Hetty is able to grow.

The psychology of beauty is a prominent theme in the novel.  Here, characters who are outwardly beautiful, like Hetty are contrasted with characters like Dinah, who is not attractive.  Others tend to judge on outward, rather than inward beauty, often to their detriment, for it is Dinah who is truly beautiful.  Dinah creates beauty through her love and kindness towards others. 

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