In Swift's Gulliver's Travels, what special attributes does the Emperor of Lilliput possess which set him apart from the common folk?

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Well, I'd say generally speaking, the Emperor of Liliput is depicted as very much equivalent to the great monarchs of Europe, in terms of his features (he's described with "an Austrian lip" for example), his style of dress, and the opulence of his palace and court. In all these respects, Swift is crafting an image which reflects that of the great princes and monarchs of Europe (and Gulliver describes him accordingly). Physically, he's described as taller than the typical Liliputian with "strong and masculine" features and as being "then past his prime, being twenty-eight years and three quarters old" (Chapter 2). Perhaps more important than his appearance, however, is his pride, and the ways in which Swift uses him as a way of satirizing the ambitions and excesses of European monarchy. After Gulliver destroys the fleet of Blefuscu, the Emperor intends to use Gulliver to conquer them, and when Gulliver refuses to participate in this act of military aggression, the Emperor's relationship with Gulliver takes a stark turn towards the worst.

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The emperor of Lilliput is taller, by perhaps a centimeter or so, than anyone else in his court, and Gulliver says that the height difference is enough to impress a beholder.  Likewise, he has "strong and masculine" features, a graceful and regal bearing, and superior posture and proportion.  These seem to set him apart from the rabble, at least for Gulliver.

Besides this, Gulliver tells us that the emperor is almost twenty nine years old, has reigned for approximately seven years, and has been -- for the most part -- victorious and happy all the while.  He is an excellent horseman, quite articulate, and very desirous, at least initially, of showing Gulliver hospitality and courtesy.  He is later revealed to be somewhat less hospitable, especially when thwarted in his plans to defeat Blefuscu.

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