In order to properly analyze the meaning of the poem "The Stone Goddess" by Sri Aurobindo Ghose, it is important to understand something about the background of the poet. He studied for a time at the University of Cambridge in England and became a teacher for a time when he returned. Between 1902 and 1910, he was involved in India's struggle for independence. After a period of imprisonment, he fled British India and took refuge in Pondicherry, which at the time was a small French colony on the southeast coast of the Indian Subcontinent. For the rest of his life he devoted himself to spirituality and established an ashram where other spiritual seekers could come and study.
In a section called "Note on the Texts" in Sri Aurobindo's Collected Poems, there is a comment on "The Stone Goddess":
This sonnet is about an experience Sri Aurobindo had at a temple in Karnali, on the banks of the Narmada, near the end of his stay in Baroda (c. 1904-6).
Baroda, known as Vadodara in modern India, is a city in the state of Gujarat. The Narmada is a major river that runs from central India west across the subcontinent. Karnali is a village along the shore of the Narmada River in which sits an important temple to Shiva, one of the principle gods in Hinduism.
We see, then, that Sri Aurobindo was a devoted spiritual seeker as well as a poet. In this context we can better understand "The Stone Goddess." He writes of coming across a goddess in a shrine within a "town of gods," which could be a reference to Karnali. However, he does not see this shrine as a tourist would, which would be as an interesting sight. Instead, he believes that the statue contains a "living presence," that in some way the goddess resides within the sculpture. This goddess, according to Sri Aurobindo, is omnipotent, or all powerful, but at the same time she remains silent and inscrutable, or unknowable. Her symbolic presence in the statue still remains silent and voiceless, but she can communicate directly with the soul, which is able to hear her secret. This "beauty and mystery" cause the person worshiping the goddess and the goddess herself to become united.