The first step is to clearly state a problem or a question that you wish to solve about a natural phenomenon. Next, find out what you can that already is known about this topic. Formulate a hypothesis. This is an educated guess--a possible solution to your problem or question. It is written in the form of a statement and never a question. Set up a controlled experiment. Gather data carefully during the experiment. Analyze the data and arrive at some type of conclusion. Was the hypothesis correct or not? If it was, for this research to be valid, one needs to share their findings with others so that the results may be duplicated by many other scientists. If the hypothesis was incorrect, revise the experiment, the hypothesis and go back to the drawing board!