Summarize Chapter 4-12 of World History and Geography by Jackson Spielvogel.   

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mrkirschner eNotes educator| Certified Educator

World History and Geography by Jackson Spielvogel is a popular American high school textbook that is published by Glencoe. Asking for a summary of nine chapters from the textbook (almost two hundred pages) is a little much. What I will provide is a quick overview of each of the first three chapters that you requested.

Chapter Four-- This chapter gives a quick look at the geography of the Ancient Greeks and how it impacted the early political and social history. The Mycenaean civilization was the first on mainland Greece and this period was followed by a Dark Age. During the Dark Ages, a group of people known as the Dorians brought the alphabet and iron which helped revive the Greek economy. The chapter continues with the discussion of Greece's culture, philosophy, and achievement. Also detailed are two major conflicts in Greece, one with Persia and the other between two Greek city-states: Sparta and Athens. The final section of the chapter discusses the Macedonian conquest and the impact of Alexander the Great.

Chapter Five--The major religions of Hinduism and Buddhism are examined from their doctrines and beliefs to the impact they had on India. This is the chapter that explains the rigid social structure of India that is called the caste system. The chapter explores three empires between 260 BC and 410 AD: Mauryan, Kushan, and Gupta. The culture and accomplishments of the three empires are examined, specifically the architecture and mathematics.

Chapter Six--Confucianism as a guiding principle of spirituality and civic life is discussed at the beginning of this chapter and is a theme throughout. Other Chinese philosophers (Daoism and Legalism) are also contemplated. The unification of China under the Qin Dynasty and an examination of the life of Qin Shihuangdi follows. The chapter concludes with the Han Dynasty, particularly the political structure, and technology. The chapter ends with the cause of the fall of the Han Empire.

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