State how the following can be made possible? DNA carries hereditary information for the synthesis of carbohydrate.
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. Within one strand of DNA, one finds the genetic code that is used to synthesize proteins found within both plants and animals. This code allows for the synthesis of proteins whose function can vary.
What is the nature of this genetic code?
Most living organisms contain a genome containing chromosomes which are composed of double helical DNA. Within a single strand of DNA, one finds the genetic code. This code contains the information which is needed to produce proteins. This information is packaged within genes. Within a gene, one may find the code for producing a particular protein or set of proteins. Within single stranded DNA, one finds a specific sequence of nucleotides called adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. It is this sequence which contains the relevanthereditary information for the downstream synthesis of protein via the processes of transcription and translation. A sequence of three nucleotides is known as a codon, which codes for a single amino acid. If we know the DNA sequence, we can infer the sequence of amino acids which are found within the proteins that are ultimately synthesized. I use the term infer since many intra- and extra-nuclear processing events need to take place from the level of the DNA to the production of the final active protein. The life history for each protein is quite a complex process.
One of the functions for a select group of proteins that can be produced via the aforementioned process is to synthesize carbohydrates. Herein is the connection between DNA andcarbohydrates. The information in the genetic code within DNA synthesizes protein which in turn can synthesize carbohydrates.
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is made of monomers called nucleotides. Nucleotides of DNA have three main parts- the sugar deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogen bases. The nitrogen bases of DNA are adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine. DNA is made of two strands of bonded nucleotides that form a double helix. Genes are defined as segments of nucleotides that code for a specific protein within the body. The order of the nucleotides effects what protein is made from the gene. Protein synthesis begins with the transcription of DNA’s genetic code onto an mRNA. The mRNA then ventures out into the cytoplasm. Once in the cytoplasm, the mRNA works with ribosomes, tRNA, and rRNA via translation to make proteins.
The way in which DNA indirectly carries the hereditary information for the synthesis of carbohydrates is via gluconeogenesis. Gluconeogenesis occurs once a protein has been created via protein synthesis. Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that uses the proteins made during protein synthesis to make glucose. The process of gluconeogenesis occurs in either the liver and/or kidneys.