I've noticed you have several discussion posts about South Asia, and most of the responses have been about India. If you are using this information as research for a paper or project, I wouldn't overlook Afghanistan. It freed itself from Persian control in 1709, beginning a long history of rebellion in the nation. From Afghanistan's resistance to the Soviet Union in the 1980's to the current conflict today, the nation has been a focal point of the region.
Vasco da Gama's landing at Calicut (Calcutta) in 1498 marked a major turning point for India. There was a long history of contact between the subcontinent and Europe, but the European discovery of a direct sea route permanently changed that dynamic.
For this time period, I would look first at the rise of the Mughals. I would look at Babur's invasion Afghanistan and then India in the early 1500s. I would look at the expansion of the empire by Akbar in the late 1500s and early 1600s. Then I would look at the coming of the British in the early to mid- 1600s.