The source of the sun's energy is fusion – the same energy source as a hydrogen bomb. A hydrogen bomb explodes outward. Why does the sun not explode outward?
2ND question :
It takes an extreme amount of time for radiation to pass through the sun's radiative layer, even though the radiation travels at the speed of light. Why is this so?
3RD question :
How do invisible x-rays become visible light in the sun's radiative layer?
4TH question :
What process brings the energy from the outside of the radiative layer to the surface of the sun?
5TH question :
Why are sunspots dark, and what is it about their formation that makes this true?
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The sun produces its energy through a process called nuclear fusion, which is when two hydrogen nuclei are fused together to produce a helium nucleus. Energy is released as a result, which radiates outward through the layers of the sun, and then into space. So the sun does radiate in an outward fashion, just not exploding into pieces like a nuclear bomb would do.
The radiative layer is very dense. This material is so dense, it takes millions of years for the radiation created to pass through it. Once it clears the really dense layers, the radiation from the sun, at the speed of light, takes only 8.3 light-minutes to reach Earth.
X-rays are not part of the visible light spectrum. They are high-energy waves, located between ultraviolet waves (UV) and gamma rays, which are the highest in energy. All three of these high energy waves are invisible to the human eye.
Radiation is brought to the surface of the sun by a series of convection cells within the radiative zone. The radiation then proceeds from the surface in a straight-line fashion in all directions away from the sun.
And lastly, sunspots are areas on the surface of the sun that are natably cooler than the other areas on thesun, so they appear as darker spots on the sun. Sunspots were one of the pieces of evidence to help prove the sun is rotating, as they were tracked moving across the surface of the sun.