In The Souls of Black Folks, what is Du Bois's criticism of Booker T. Washington?

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W.E.B. Du Bois had a number of individual points of criticism against Booker T. Washington, which he amply expressed in the essay "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others" comprising the third chapter of The Souls of Black Folk. But his specific point of criticism, upon which all others hinged, is that Washington's plan sacrificed the humanity of black Americans. The centrality of this criticism is borne out by the epigraph, a quotation from poet Lord Byron, heading the essay:

From birth till death enslaved; in word, in deed, unmanned! . . .
Hereditary bondsmen! Know ye not
Who would be free themselves must strike the blow?
BYRON. (Childe Harold, Canto II)

Even though Du Bois (also spelled DuBois) ultimately came to criticize Washington, early on they shared some perspectives and cooperated on certain issues. For example, they shared mutual belief in the overriding importance of establishing economic advancement. After the turn of the twentieth century, however, Du Bois's perspective changed. He...

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