When the mass production of the Industrial Revolution flooded the market with affordable consumer goods, these manufactured goods greatly improved the living conditions of the citizens of these industrialized countries. When the cost of living decreased and the standard of living increased, the population experienced a large boom. Europe alone nearly increased by a factor of four, and on the American continents populations increased more than ten times between 1700 and 1900. This population boom came as a result of a high birthrate due to the lower cost of living and the lowering of death rates due to an increase in sanitary conditions and diets. The population boom that industrial nations began to go through in the 1800s was known as a demographic transition.
With the flourishing economies of these industrial nations migrants were encouraged. These migrants as well as natural citizens began to settle in cities and countries became more urbanized. Naturally cities were polluted as they were. The increase of people moving into urban environments led to a large concentration of air and water pollution. The industrialization also led to the development of new social classes, a middle class emerged when entrepreneurs and businessmen gained such a vast wealth in this new industrial capitalism. Businesspeople became so wealthy that there became a large gap in income, and when the line between the now-rich and the now-middle class were once somewhat blurred the classes and their power were now distinct.
Most families also went through large changes through the Industrial Revolution. Where most families were involved in agricultural work before industrialization, the factory system led to a change in the family structure. Most members of the family, including the children, were moved outside of the agricultural work involved in the household and they were shifted into working in mass production factories. Working class men enjoyed wages much higher than that of working women and even children before child labor laws were passed. The higher wages gave the men in the family a "bread-winner" type of status and they enjoyed a certain amount of standing over all the other members of the family. With men moving outside of the home, women became more and more domesticated. If married women were going to start working outside of the home in the factory, they would have to leave their children in the care of someone else. Middle-class women were encouraged to stay at home and take care of the kids in their more traditional "homemaker" role. Children, unfortunately, served as low cost labor and were used in the factories that always offered a dangerous environment.
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