You and your are second-person pronouns that address the reader directly; usually, they should not be used in academic writing. For example, you might change "You should not use second-person pronouns in academic writing" to either of the following:
Second person pronouns should not be used in academic writing.
One should not use second-person pronouns in academic writing.
In the assignment, eliminate you and your references so that the sentences do not address the reader directly.
An expletive is a word or phrase that does not add to the sense or meaning of the sentence, or a word or phrase that is vulgar or treats sacred things with disrespect. In academic writing, you'll want to eliminate these words and phrases. In the assignment, by reading each sentence carefully and even aloud, you will notice the extra words and phrases that can be eliminated without taking away from the sentence’s meaning. Revise the sentence to make it a direct statement with no extra meaningless words or phrases. Look at the first one:
To make matters worse, there are several vicious cycles that facilitate the continued trend of opioid abuse.
In fewer words, the meaning of the sentence is "several vicious cycles facilitate continued opioid abuse." The word vicious makes To make matters worse unnecessary. Eliminating there are and making several vicious cycles the complete subject of the sentence creates a more direct statement. Eliminate that to make facilitate the main verb of the sentence. Finally, read the new sentence aloud to be sure it is a complete sentence.
Contractions are shortened forms phrases that omit one or more letters in combining the words. Most contractions are shortened forms of a pronoun and a form of the verb to be. Note that an apostrophe is used to indicate that one or more letters are omitted in that space. For example, he’s is a contraction for he is, where the i in is is eliminated. A list of contractions may be found in any grammar book or on any grammar site. Here’s a list of the most common.
I am = I’m; I have = I’ve
we are = we’re; we have = we’ve; we will = we’ll
you are = you’re; you have = you’ve; you will = you’ll
he is = he’s; he will = he’ll
she is = she’s; she will = she’ll
it is = it’s; it will = it’ll
they are = they’re; they have = they’ve; they will = they’ll
Contractions may also be shortened forms of a verb and the word not. To create a contraction with a verb and not, omit the o in not. For example, don’t is a contraction for do not, where the o in not is eliminated. In the assignment, find any words with an apostrophe and replace that contraction with the complete form of the two words. Change I’m to I am, we’re to we are, and so on.