What are the similarities and differences between the Bohr and quantum atomic models in terms of positions occupied by electrons?

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According to the Bohr model of the atom, electrons move around the nucleus of an atom in fixed paths called orbits. A diagram of a Bohr model of an atom resembles the solar system with the nucleus at the center. This model treats electrons as particles.

The quantum mechanical model...

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According to the Bohr model of the atom, electrons move around the nucleus of an atom in fixed paths called orbits. A diagram of a Bohr model of an atom resembles the solar system with the nucleus at the center. This model treats electrons as particles.

The quantum mechanical model of the atom describes the locations of electrons with complex equations called wave functions. The solution to a wave equation is a three-dimensional region in which a given electron is most likely to be found. This region is called an orbital. Each principal energy level (n) has the number of sub-levels equal to n. The different sub-levels have different shapes of orbitals. The shapes of s, p and d orbitals are shown in the image below. F-orbitals are more complex. Two electrons can occupy each orbital but they must have opposite spin (electromagnetic orientation.) Electrons that share an orbital are said to be paired.

Here are some points that the two models have in common:

1. Electrons are outside the nucleus, while protons and neutrons are in the nucleus.

2. Electrons in lower energy levels are closer to the nucleus than those occupying higher energy levels.

3. Electrons can move to higher unoccupied energy levels if sufficient energy is gained.

 

 

 

 

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