While there is a case to be made for this from the scientific point of view, from the moral point of view compulsory population control seems to be an unconscionable violation of basic human rights.
From the scientific or environmental point of view, it would be a good idea for populations to be controlled. Lower populations would reduce the stress on our environment from people wanting a standard of living that requires heavy usage of resources. Thus, lower populations would be good for the environment in many different ways.
However, from a moral and political point of view, population control such as China's one-child policy is a terrible violation of human liberty. Westerners, at least, believe that people have the inalienable right to liberty and that personal decisions like those about reproduction should be left to the people involved. It is very difficult to justify compulsory family limitation if you believe that human beings have a right to liberty.
Population growth in a country can be controlled in three main ways. These are controlling the birth rate, death rate and migration rate. Through years, authorities have been regulating the size of their respective population. It has been owing to appropriate measures to control numbers of people living in their countries that, third world countries have been able to progress socially, and economically, to become developed.
First and foremost, population growth is controlled to combat social ills. It is very difficult for authorities from an overpopulated country to have the upper-hand on people. Too many citizens in a state brings about problems like crimes, delinquency, violence, ethnic tensions and epidemics
Secondly, population growth is increased or decreased because of the economic position of the particular country. A too large populace brings about many economic difficulties like unemployment, a high consumption rate, a negative balance of payments, big budget deficits and high debts of countries. Therefore through family planning accompanied by contraceptive measures, concerned people try to reduce the increase in the expansion rate of the people
Lastly, encouragement towards limitation of growing population results in many health and social problems. For example, contraceptive measures are encouraged by authorities, but this result in more social intercourse which in turn result in more sexually transmitted diseases. Also, scientifically it has been proven that some contraceptives when taken in excess affect lives or simply health of individuals especially women