Sinmd has posted two questions on very different topics in her post above. I will answer the second of the two question about Zero Defects methodology.
The Zero Defects methodology was developed by P.B. Crosby in his book Quality is Free. Further ideas on this techniques were presented by him in his next book titled Quality Without Tears.
The zero defects methodology aims to eliminate even the slightest proportion of defects in a large batch of production. As envisaged by Crosby, Zero Defects program can be implemented using a fourteen step approach described below.
- Create management commitment to the implementation of the program.
- Form a quality improvement team and provide them with adequate authority and resources.
- Develop a system of measuring quality.
- Investigate and determine the cost of quality. This is supposed to act as a rationale to justify cost of quality improvement.
- Create awareness about the need to improve quality and management commitment towards this goal.
- Identify and correct root causes for poor quality.
- Develop plan to move from quality improvement to zero defect.
- Educate employee about what is quality and what they need to do about it.
- To develop employee awareness, commitment, and enthusiasm for the zero defect program, organize and celebrate "Zero defect day" from time to time.
- Set Intermediate goals with target dates, so that steady progress can be made towards zero defect.
- It is necessary to to determine the real sources of errors and eliminate them.
- Recognize and celebrate contribution of employees to the success of the program.
- Set up quality councils to facilitate effective participation of quality professionals in the program.
- Repeat the process all over again when quality improvement team begins to loose enthusiasm ad the pace of improvement slows down. To do this members of the quality team should make way for a new team.