In The Secret Life of Bees, what does the quote at the beginning of chapter 14 mean?

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The epigraph at the beginning of chapter 14 simply means that a hive of bees without a queen can become a very sad and mournful place. In a beehive, the queen is the giver of life. Without her, the other bees have nothing to live for. But great change can also occur from the introduction of a new queen into the hive. That's the literal meaning of the epigraph. The metaphorical meaning refers to Deborah's abandonment of Lily. Deborah, the queen bee, as it were, has departed the "hive," leaving Lily feeling sad and mournful. Without the queen bee, or mother, the hive or home just isn't the same.

Nevertheless, August admirably fulfills the role of queen bee herself. She also encourages Lily to cultivate her innate spirituality as a way of making herself feel whole again in the wake of Deborah's departure.

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In the book The Secret Life of Bees, literally the quote means that a hive without a queen is a hive destined to die as the queen produces what is needed to live and continue reproducing.  The hive has no future unless a new queen can be produced, and when she is, the hive is now alive and has possibilities again.  Figuratively, think about what happens in Chapter 14.  This chapter is where T Ray shows up looking for Lily and Rosaleen, the ones who had left him.  His home had no queen bee nor workers to provide life and light and a future.  Yet, he realizes that Lily is better off where she is and will blossom like a beehive with a new queen.  So Lily settles in and blooms with the love and care of August who tells Lily, "We are enough."

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