What are the seasonal winds that play a large role in South Asia called?
The name usually used to refer to seasonal winds in South Asia (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh) is "monsoon." These winds blow from the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea and deliver heavy rainfall to the region. Monsoons, which are called "Nairutya Maarut" in India, are caused by sea breezes. When the temperature of the land is warmer because the sunlight heats the land more quickly than it heats the water of the ocean, the air above the land expands, causing a system of low pressure. Over the ocean, there is an area of low pressure, which causes the moist, cooler air to flow as sea breezes over the land. As the air cools, its ability to hold water decreases, and it releases precipitation. This cycle is why monsoons deliver so much rain in the warmer season.
I believe that the word you are looking for to complete this question is "monsoon." The monsoon is a season of winds and heavy rains that affects much of South Asia on an annual basis.
The term monsoon is most usually connected with South Asia, and particularly with what used to be British India (which also includes what is now Pakistan and Bangladesh). This is how the word got into the English language. However, there are also monsoons in some other parts of the world.
In South Asia, the Monsoon is a summer phenomenon that occurs from June to September.
Yes the right answer is "monsoon". I am giving below some additional information on monsoon.
The name monsoon is derived from a local name for these winds, which means seasonal winds. The monsoon blows over the northern part of the Indian Ocean, especially the Arabian Sea, and over most of the surrounding land areas. The monsoon blows from the southwest from April to October, and from the northeast from November to March. The southwesterly monsoon brings heavy rains to southern and southeastern Asia, including Bangladesh, Burma, India, and Thailand. Popularly the word monsoon is used only for these winds tha bring tain with them.