Roger BaconIn what way does Roger Bacon make a contribution to medieval thought, and what are some of his main arguments?
The fact that many scholars and intellectual historians have argued for a revisionist interpretation of Bacon's empiricism is not really an argument that he didn't believe in inductive method or observation, but that he wasn't as ahead of his times in this respect. In short, there was more commitment to inductive reasoning in medieval thought than is previously known. This is an example (there are many in the areas of politics, culture, and society) of an increasing awareness that the medieval period may be more modern than has been previously recognized. Robert Grossteste, in particular, is often viewed as a progenitor of Bacon's in attaching importance to experimentation.
I would say that Bacon is pointing past medieval thought really. He was very strongly interested in science and in the idea of studying science in a rational and empirical way. However, some scholars of Bacon maintain that he really didn't do much experimentation. So that could be how he relates to medieval thought. He could be seen as someone who is a transition. He is interested in rationalist and empiricism and questioning the authorities, but he is not yet committed to the full scientific method that would be more typical of the Renaissance.
Roger Bacon is famous for the way he focused on empirical methods to study nature in his examination of creation. Because of this he is thought to be one of the initiators of the modern scientific method because of his empirical emphasis when trying to understand how the world around him worked. This was his major contribution to medieval thought.