There were many very important political developments in Russia (and then the USSR) during this time. Some examples include:
- "Bloody Sunday," which happened in January of 1905. This was an extremely important event because it revealed the callousness of the monarchy towards the people. It set off huge protests and demands for a republic which led to the creation of the Duma. It also led to efforts to create soviets around the country.
- The next huge event came in 1917. At this point, the stresses of WWI helped to cause the overthrow of the monarchy. After the monarchy came a multi-sided civil war, eventually won by the Bolsheviks.
- In 1924, the constitution of the Soviet Union was adopted and the country's basic political system was created.
Of course, this is a very basic outline, but perhaps it will get you started towards your essay.