This is a bit much of a question... multi-part and way beyond the scope of a 90-word answer. So I'll really abbreviate it...
Main goal of the Revolution, at least in the long term, is the idea of democracy. Giving them the benefit of the doubt, they were (more than other people of the time) dedicated to the idea that all men were created equal.
Surely this ideal is still pertinent today. The idea of equality is still a very powerful force here in the US. Similarly, there are many people around the world who continue to pressure their governments to come closer to this ideal.
I have received a mail from pohnpei397, seeking views from a non-American on the question of whether the ideals of the American Revolution remain pertinent today. So here are my views.
The American revolution was primarily a fight against the British attempts to impose their will on the people of European origin settled in America to benefit British people at the cost of Americans. Thus the direct objective of the revolution was to seek freedom from oppressive rule of the British for economic betterment of European settlers in America.
The Ideals of equality and liberty of all men was adopted by the leaders as a means to rally together a very wide section of the population, and perhaps to obtain support of France.
Whatever was the reason for adopting the ideals of equality and freedom by leaders of revolution at that time it was very much an ideal worth striving for at that time. I believe, this Ideal not only continues to be relevant today, but has actually become much more relevant and important today.