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There were too many effects to go into all of them. So, I will only highlight a few points.
First, Lincoln declared all slaves free on January 1, 1963. This was, of course, the Emancipation Proclamation. Whether the South slave owners complied is a different story. But from a legal point of view, there was freedom.
Second, there was an enormous loss of life. Scholars estimate that 600,000 - 800,000 people died in the War. Many of these were Confederate soldiers. So, from a casualty point of view, there was a huge loss of life. In fact, the loss of life was more than any other war.
Third, what scholars call "Reconstruction" started. Not only was this a time of rebuilding, but a time where Southern states were admitted back int the Union. Emotionally, things were mixed. There was some healing, but for others there was still great bitterness. Also during this time of rebuilding, some found ways to benefit themselves. This cause resentment among southern states. These opportunist were called Scalawags and Carpetbaggers.
As you can imagine, not all was well in the South. Former slaves owners created the Jim Crow Laws to keep blacks at arms length in a "legal" way. Surprisingly these laws were in force until 1965. From this point of view, we can say that the South was still bitter. From the point of view of black, things were better but not by much. All of this would lead to the Civil Rights Movement.
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