In order to write a five-paragraph essay about Charles Dickens' Hard Times, discussing each of the three books, you need an introduction that describes Dickens' attitude towards Utilitarianism and shows that Gradgrind exemplifies the Utilitarian ethos and his pupils its effects. Next, you will need one paragraph on each book. First show how in the first book Gradgrind instils Utilitarian precepts in his pupils. The next paragraph should discuss how each major character's actions and attitudes lead to positive or negative outcome in the second book. The fourth paragraph should discuss the mechanisms of the plot resolution. The conclusion should show how Dickens intended the novel not just to say something about a small selection of characters but to be a commentary on the state of England.