In the religion of Buddhism, to what extent do our actions on earth affect what happens to us after we die?

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Our actions, according to Buddhism, have a great deal of impact on what happens to us after we die.  In Buddhism, all of our actions are our karma and they create our karma.  By doing the things we do, we essentially create our own selves and our own fate.  After we die, some aspect of us continues to live.  It is not exactly right to say our soul continues to live because there is nothing about us that is permanent.  We are always changing who we are.  However (and this is something that cannot be understood merely by reason) the energy that we have does not disappear.  It can be reborn into something that is not us, but is also not someone else.  That new entity is also impacted by our built-up karma.  In that way, what we do has some impact on what happens to “us” after we die.

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