One of the main tenets of the ancient Hebrews was the idea of one God. Most religions of the day believed in many different gods. However, the first tenet of the Jewish faith was "thou shall have no other Gods before me." In addition, the Jews believed in a law that was written down and could be read and interpreted by any person who could read. This included a well educated class of scribes and elders who studied for years and were especially trained to copy ancient texts exactly as they were. That has meant that even today, thousands of years after they were first written, we still can find the ancient texts they followed. Finally, the Jew believed that their God has chosen them specifically through Abraham to carry out his will on earth. They were to remain a special people and not intermarry with people of other beliefs. Eventually, their God would sent a "messiah" or savior to the earth to both save and judge the people. Christians believe that Jesus is that Messiah, while most Jews believe the Messiah is still to come.
Many of the ancient Hebrew customs are still practiced today in modern society. Jews believe in only one G-d and do not worship idols. They celebrate their Sabbath on the seventh day (Saturday). They also follow strict laws of kashrut (kosher) which forbid them from eating pork, shellfish, and the mixing of dairy and meat.