Shintoism as a way of life is characterized as an essential element in The Tale Of Genji. It undergirds the individual stories in Murasaki Shikibu's epic novel. As a spiritual practice, Shintoism is not a religion with a deity or specific scriptures. In Japan, it exists in harmony with Buddhism. As in the story, Shintoism concerns itself with pragmatic concerns within an earthly structure; it does not account for the possibility of a transcendental other world. As such, humanity is not thought of as 'fallen' in the sense of 'original sin.' Instead, adherents of this way of life rely on a set of ethical principles to navigate their way through the vicissitudes of life, as in The Tale Of Genji.
A deep respect for kami or interested spirits is central to Shintoism. Kami are not gods or omnipotent creatures. They may even be flawed, and some are unquestionably evil. In short, kami are just higher manifestations of the life energy; if applied to, they may help humans in time of need, as illustrated in Genji's visit to the Shinto shrine at Sumiyoshi, where he thanks the kami in residence for conferred blessings and protection. Kami may be spirits which inhabit humans, a natural force in storms or earthquakes and even certain landscape features such as mountains. To adherents, shrine rituals are necessary in aiding the development of a working relationship with kami for the purposes of requesting protection, good health, and specific solutions to earthly conundrums.
An important Shinto ritual in The Tale Of Genji is the purification rite. These purification rites are intended to cleanse the mind and body of sin, pollutions, or the influence of evil spirits. Some Shinto purification rituals involve water and others, salt. Basically, both salt and water are used as spiritually cleansing mediums. In the story, Lady Rokujo, the longtime mistress of Genji, believes that evil spirits within her are attacking Genji's wife; she even has dreams about it. Her fears that the living spirit/kami within her, 'preoccupied with personal desires and attachments' are responsible for the suffering of Genji's wife leads her to resort to purification rituals and healing rites.
Indeed, Genji himself orders exorcism rituals (prayers and rites) for his wife in order to chase away the malignant and obsessive kami tormenting her.
There are also purification rituals for priestesses. In the story, Lady Rokujo's daughter, Akikonomu, has to endure lustrations (purification rituals) in her initiation as an Ise High Priestess. During her daughter's purification rituals, Lady Rokujo places branches of the sacred sakaki tree in corners and at the gates. The sakaki branches designate any area as sacred space; with its evergreen appearance, the sakaki also represents continued prosperity and thriving success.
There are also purification rituals after childbirth; these rituals are to be performed during a period of confinement for the baby immediately after it is born. In the story, the Akashi Princess and her baby boy are moved to the Southeast residence of the palace so that the little boy would be formally confined in a grand residence for his purification rituals. Today, the Hatsumiyamairi marks a newborn's first visit to the shrine to honor his personal kami.
There are many more examples of Shinto rituals in The Tale Of Genji; the importance of rituals in the story is center to the tale itself and worth studying within the context of its influence on the thoughts and actions of its characters.