Planning for after the war began as early as 1863. President Lincoln had issued his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction. His plan called for the Southern states to form a new government after ten percent of the registered voters of 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the United States government, thereby receiving a Presidential Pardon. Confederate senior officials and generals, particularly those who left government service to join the Confederacy were excluded. This was his famous "ten percent plan." Radical Republicans in Congress disputed Lincoln's right as President to dictate terms of reconstruction and developed their own plan, the Wade Davis Bill which provided that a majority of eligible voters must declare allegiance; only those who took an ironclad oath of past loyalty could vote or serve in State constitutional conventions; and slavery must be abolished. Lincoln pocket vetoed the Bill, so it never became law. Lincoln had planned for a more compassionate reconstruction, stating that the price of the lash had been paid in blood. Unfortunately, he was assassinated before he could take further action. Although not ratified until late 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment which ended slavery was passed by Congress before the end of the war.