The first half of the 19th century in the U.S. produced a series of reform movements. These movements were motivated by the new ideas concerning religion, education, and societal values. The Second Great Awakening was a religious movement which challenged the Calvinist belief of predestination. The idea that ones' destiny to heaven or hell was 'predestined' at birth was replaced by the idea that men and women had control over their destinies. Each individual had the power within themself to choose to do good and not commit sin. The educational reforms led by Horace Mann suggested that education should not be just for the wealthy. Education should be funded by the government, inclusive to all, have grade standardization, and trained teachers. The American Temperance
Society saw alcohol as the root to many of society's problems and sought to prohibit consumption. In addition, prior to the Civil War the American Colonization Society strived to emancipate slaves and return them to Africa. It was from this effort that the abolitionist movement grew and became a reform force to be reckoned with, ultimately resulting in the 13th Amendment.