Read the article below, and answer the following questions: Response should and include concepts, appropriate reasons, evidence, and/or examples as support for your position. Use the four...

Read the article below, and answer the following questions:

Response should and include concepts, appropriate reasons, evidence, and/or examples as support for your position.

  1. Use the four market segmentations, demographic, geographic, psychographic, and behavioral to describe the target market for men's grooming products.  Be sure to state which methods have been used.
  2. In what ways are the marketing mixes (i.e., product, (what the consumer wants and needs), price, (cost to satisfy), place, (convenience to buy), and promotion, (communication) for men's grooming products different from those for women?  Why?
  3. Describe at least two sociocultural, personal, and psychological influences on consumer behavior that are discussed in the article.
  4. Besides the recommendations and ideas described in the article, provide at least two unique ideas for marketers of grooming products to successfully pursue the male market.

 Dude, Pass the Exfoliator

Marketers Find What Makes Men Buy Eye Cream; Start By Labeling It 'For Men'


Matt Anderson was hanging out at a L'Occitane store in Washington, D.C., one afternoon, waiting for a friend's wife to finish shopping, when a saleswoman gently suggested his face and shaved head would benefit from some moisturizer.

Mr. Anderson, a 37-year-old with a beard who manages a team of international disaster-response volunteers for the American Red Cross, had never used a facial skin-care product before, much less one from Provence. But "on a lark," he says, he bought the Verdon Energy Face Moisturizer and soon found he liked it enough to use it twice a day.

Retailers and brands capitalize on men's growing interest in grooming products. Elizabeth Holmes on Lunch Break looks at how a new generation of men are defying the Neanderthal stereotype and paying attention to skin and hair. Photo: Duane Reade.

Perhaps there was a time when moisturizing wasn't "macho," Mr. Anderson says. "If anything went beyond Old Spice, or if it got too poofy, you would kind of be laughed at. Now, there are so many products."

Men's grooming has gone mainstream. Male skin care is one of the beauty industry's fastest-growing sectors, with more men adopting a grooming regimen, alongside exercise and eating right, as a component of healthy living.

Many more men are shopping for themselves, compared with a decade ago when women made most of their purchases. Studies show men now buy as much as half of male-grooming and other types of consumer products.

"We have really noticed a transformational difference in the role that men play," says Rob Candelino, vice president of skin cleansing U.S. at Unilever, whose brands include Dove, Vaseline and Axe.

Setting Men at Ease

Retailers are creating shopping spaces meant to put men at ease. Nordstrom recently moved the men's grooming counter inside the men's furnishings area. Drugstore chains such as CVSCVSG.LN=3.03% and Duane Reade have tested male-dedicated sections.

Macy's M =1.16% in downtown Philadelphia has recently opened a "men's grooming zone" on the beauty selling floor, with a flat-screen TV, free wireless Internet and a Keurig coffee maker.

It is "almost a men's skin-care man cave," says Muriel Gonzalez, executive vice president for cosmetics, fragrances and shoes. A similar space is planned for a Macy's in San Francisco in June.

 Elmer Clarke, counter manager in the 'men's grooming zone' at Macy's in Philadelphia. Retailers use open displays to encourage male shoppers to pick up and handle skin-care products and even test them out.Ryan Collerd for The Wall Street Journal

Male shoppers like to see the words "for men" on labels, says Anthony Sosnick, founder of Anthony Brands Inc. But male-female product differences go deeper than packaging. Male skin-care formulas tend to be lighter and absorb faster than women's, because men's skin is oilier.

And price points tend to be lower. The Anthony Logistics for Men line has a vitamin C facial serum in stores like Sephora, where one ounce costs $42. "If we were to price it like a women's serum, which would be maybe $80 to $100, most of our customers probably would not buy it," Mr. Sosnick says. Price may be one reason the product has female fans.

Whether it's baby boomers hoping to overcome signs of aging or millenials who grew up spritzing Axe body spray, there's a wider spectrum of men buying grooming products than there once was.

 Photos: Looking Good, Guy

 Drugstore chain Duane Reade is experimenting with dedicated display space for men's grooming products, away from the traditional beauty aisles. Duane Reade

"It isn't taboo anymore for men to want to take care of themselves," says Cheri Keating, a groomer and member of the advisory board for Estée Lauder's Lab Series Skincare for Men. The brand recently introduced a brightening eye balm with a 'metallic cooling applicator' ($28) and a tinted moisturizer ($38.50).

Grooming and skin care is long established among gay consumers. For example, Thomas Ellington, a 31-year-old who lives in Boston and works in socially responsible investing, says he began using an anti-aging cream in his early 20s. Friends told him, "Just start using it now. You're going to regret it if you don't."

Now more heterosexual men are catching on. "Straight friends of mine, I run into them in Sephora and Kiehl's," says Sean Kaplan, a 32-year-old Philadelphia real-estate broker.

 Tinted moisturizer ($38.50, Lab Series) is on the next frontier—products with color. Lab Series

About one in four men uses some sort of facial skin-care product, whether it is facial wash, moisturizer, lip balm or eye cream, according to market research firm NPD Group. U.S. department-store sales in the male skin-care sector, which includes body lotion and hair products, reached $84.7 million last year, up about 13% from the prior year, NPD says. Compared with sales of women's skin care, which are north of $2 billion, there's still room to grow, says Karen Grant, senior global industry analyst at NPD.

The shave—a universal and uniquely male need—is the focal point of most grooming routines. To lure men to the next level, brands position new products before and after, such as the pre-shave cleanse or scrub, or after-shave lotion. Kiehl's "Ultimate Man" skin-care routine gives clear, simple instructions in its marketing materials: "1. Cleanse," "2. Shave," and "3. Moisturize."

Now, men are experimenting with more-specific products, like anti-aging serum and eye cream. "The conversation with men has changed," says Chris Salgardo, president of Kiehl's, a L'Oréal division. Whereas a male shopper once might have asked about shaving cream, now he is likely to say, "I'm almost 40 and I don't like these lines around my eyes," Mr. Salgardo says, estimating about a third of Kiehl's shoppers are men.

 Lab Series Skincare for Men added a 'metallic cooling applicator'— think touching a cold soda can—to its $28 eye balm. Lab Series

Cleansing and moisturizing are all well and good, but do men who shave every day really need to exfoliate? Men's grooming marketers say emphatically yes. Dragging a razor across un-exfoliated skin will push dead skin into pores, causing red bumps and irritation.

 Jack Black Beard Lube, a $10.50 shave cream and conditioner, uses a font reminiscent of the script on a cigar label. Jack Black

Certain milestones seem to make a man open to changing his grooming routine, says Magnus Jonsson, director of marketing for Beiersdorf Inc., whose brands include Nivea and Eucerin. The first is when he enters the workforce and "steps into a more mature man's life," says Mr. Jonsson. The next is often marriage or cohabitation.

 Kiehl's UV Guard, $34, is part of its masculine-sounding Facial Fuel line. Kiehl's

Later, it's the appearance of gray hairs that tends to make a man reassess his grooming habits. Should he get divorced and re-enter the dating scene, he'll assess again, Mr. Jonsson said.

Most men have a female "influencer," often his girlfriend or wife, who introduces him to more sophisticated grooming products, says Unilever's Mr. Candelino. "Then once he's in, he starts to pay attention to things."

Men usually are looking for products to solve specific problems, such as dry skin or oily skin, says Jenny Belknap, vice president for global skin-care marketing at Clinique, a brand at Estée Lauder. But they are wary of beauty-industry claims. "You're not going to pull the wool over their eyes," she says. "They're going to try it for themselves and make that determination."

For its Anti-Fatigue Cooling Eye Gel, Clinique opted for a tongue-in-cheek message. "Rough night? No one will ever know," the website description reads. "Combats puffiness, dark circles. Absorbs quickly."

When Curran Dandurand and Emily Dalton created the Jack Black skin-care line, the two women opted for cobalt-blue packaging and a script font, meant to resemble cigar and liquor packaging. The name is meant to sound familiar—like a buddy a man would grab a beer with (and no relation to the actor).

The two chose mostly plastic containers, and they decided against an outer cardboard carton for most products, to encourage men to pick products up in their hands. Ms. Dalton says, "We wanted to grant him permission, in a way, like, 'Hey, this is for you.' "

Expert Answers
mwestwood eNotes educator| Certified Educator

1. Market Segmentations:

  • Demographic - Not only are Baby Boomers using skin care to stave off the signs of aging, as well as Millenials, "who grew up spritzing " body sprays, but also  men in the workforce who want to look younger in order to compete for promotions, etc. are using facial products. Certainly, many heterosexual men are now using such products when 20 years ago, facial creams were used viewed as not "macho." Also, many men now shop for themselves, so they purchase products for males whereas they may have simply used some of their wives' or female companions' lotions.
  • Geographic - Since cities, such as Philadelphia and Washington, D.C. are made as references, it would seem that the target markets are in metropolitan areas in department stores.
  • Psychographic - Retailers use various ideas to entice men to buy their skincare products:  labels indicate products labeled "for men," displays with trial samples, a separate "men's grooming zone," placement of the men's grooming counter inside an area containing furnishings for me, containers that do not have boxes so that the men can see their size, etc. One company has its product name suggestive of a cigar brand, and another's name is connotative of someone who might be next to a man at a bar.
  • Behavioral - One clever website advertisement for an anti-fatigue eye gel by Clinique has the message near it, "Rough night? No one will ever know,...Combats puffiness, dark circles. Absorbs quickly." 

2. The marketing mixes differ from those for women in the following ways:

  • packaging - often women's creams are small jars placed inside bigger boxes; men would most likely be suspicious and want to see the actual product
  • location in stores - men's facial creams are placed among furnishings and other "male" products. One company has a "men's skin-care cave" complete with TV, free wireless internet and coffeemakers.
  • prices are lower for similar products for men as those for women 
  • products are in full sight for men
  • displays for men's grooming items with samples are set up apart from traditional health and beauty aisles.

3. Two socio-cultural, personal, and psychological influences upon the behavior of consumers discussed in this report:

  1. With more emphasis upon personal appearance and aging for men as well as for women, more men are using anti-aging products as they become concerned about losing jobs to younger or better-groomed men. Younger men are using them to appear well-groomed to their co-workers, who are often women.
  2. More men are shoppers now and, thus, see the products that are available to them. They also have advertisements available to them via Internet and other sources that they watch.
  3. With more women who are in the working world, against whom men must often compete, men have come to realize the importance of being well-groomed.

4.  Two ideas for marketers of grooming products to successfully pursue the male market.

  1. Placement of skin care, especially facial lotion for wind burn or exposure to the cold in sections of stores such as Bass Pro Shop or Cebela's. The lotion by the hunting supplies, clothing, etc. could be in a camouflage bottle so "your buddies won't even know."
  2. There are now exclusively male barbershops in the old-fashioned sense. In these new shops, men can purchase beers and snacks while they wait. A section of grooming products there could include male skin care marketed in a barbershop stripe motif, perhaps, shaped like the bottles of products that the barbers themselves use on the freshly-shaved customer.