In Ralph Waldo Emerson's Nature, what does he mean by the line, "The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and heart of the child?" 

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Unsurprising given Ralph Waldo Emerson's influence on his equally famous one-time acolyte, Henry David Thoreau, the elder philosopher and writer viewed man's relationship to his surroundings through a spiritual prism consistent with his training as a minister and with his personal inclinations towards naturalism and transcendentalism. The importance of Emerson's work, especially his treatise Nature, cannot be overstated, given the influence he had not just on Thoreau, but on such luminaries of American literature as Melville, Whitman, Dickinson, and others. When examining Emerson's reflections on "nature," then, one needs to remain committed to the author's relationship to his subject.  When he wrote that "The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and heart of the child," he is stating that the source of life on Earth should not be viewed through the cold pragmatism of the scientist alone, but also through the lens of creationism. [This comment is not meant as a refutation of evolution, but as an affirmation, in the eyes of this theologically-trained minister of the presence of a divine being responsible for the beauty that surrounds us.] Reflect, for a moment, on the passage that follows the above quote:

"The lover of nature is he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the man, in spite of real sorrows."

The Earth is a gift given to man, but one the relationship to which is symbiotic.  The natural characteristics of the planet should play an integral role in the emotional and intellectual development of humanity.  The Sun exists not just as a source of light in contrast to darkness, but as a source of spiritual fulfillment that enlightens as well as lightens. Emerson's reference to "heaven and earth" is not accidental or intended as poetic; that was not the purpose of Nature, which he had published anonymously out of concern for the emotional reactions it could evoke. Presaging the modern environmental movement, Emerson believed deeply in the equanimity of life on Earth, that one species of living being is spiritually as well as practically connected to another. As he also wrote in this seminal work,

"The greatest delight which the fields and woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged." 

This father of the modern environmental movement understood the fragility of the relationship of man to the environment, and viewed the latter as every bit as important as the former.