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I would recommend you check out some of the sites that are merely dictionaries of literary terms. This would enable you to scan through the terms and hit on the ones your instructor has mentioned in class. The others have good suggestions, but this might be helpful if you're looking for more involved or indepth terms.
My go-to list of literary terms that everyone should know and be able to identify is alliteration, characterization, foreshadowing, metaphor, mood, onomatopoeia, simile, symbol, theme, and tone.
As mshurn posted, Enotes has a plethora of helpful links on this topic.
Good luck on your quiz!
I highly recommend making use of Quizlet, a site in which you can either use previous lists, in your case finding a list of common literary terms, or create your own to play interactive games, take practice tests, and learn! Go to: http://quizlet.com/subject/literary%2520terms/
where you can choose a list, make flashcards, and interactively study. I hope it helps.
Here's the link to a quiz/key over 15 common literary terms posted in enotes documents.
And here's the link to the enotes index of literary terms. It is a very comprehensive list with definitions.
Run a google search on literary terms--there are a lot of them, many referring to genre (and there's a term!) There are terms for types of books, types of poetry, collections of works, and terms for things happening in books. If you have a quiz, you need a more complete list than I can give you hear. Try these, especially the first one: http://www.orangeusd.k12.ca.us/yorba/literary_elements.htm
If you are just starting out the main ones to focus on in my opinion are alliteration, onomatopoeia, similes, metaphor, imagery, allegory and symbol. You can then expand this list by looking at other ones. You might want to check the resources under literary terms as I am sure you might find a quiz or activities already created to help teach or test these concepts.
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