Since you have placed this in the political science, I will describe these countries politically.
India is the world's most populous democracy. It has been democratic ever since it became independent. India also has a capitalist economy. The government of India has been criticized for many things. It is said to be very corrupt and it is said to impose too many rules and regulations on businesses.
China is an authoritarian country that is officially communist. Its economy is much more of a market economy than a true communist economy like North Korea's or Cuba's. The government allows more economic freedom than it once did, but it allows essentially no political freedom. It is allowed to censor the media, going as far as to censor the content of people's microblog postings.