What figures of speech are used in the following article?  http://www.csicop.org/si/show/science_and_pseudoscience_in_adult_nutrition_research_and_practice/

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jmj616 eNotes educator| Certified Educator

Your question is about an articled titled "Science and Pseudoscience in Adult Nutrition Research and Practice."  Since this is clearly a non-fiction article on a technical subject, one would not expect it to use much figurative language.  Still, there are some examples.

METAPHOR: a comparison that does not use "like" or "as"

a) "nutrition research...have lagged behind many other...fields."

Only a person (or animal, or vehicle) in a race can lag behind; saying that one kind of research "lags behind" another is a metaphor.


b) "such studies...are...the result of 'data-dredging."

The author is comparing some studies to "dredging," which is the process of cleaning a body of water by dragging up the mud and sewage that is clogging it.  The author is saying that some researchers find a lot of "dirty," unreliable statistics, "draw" them out of the mud, and use them as the basis for their conclusions.

ALLUSION: a reference to another work of literature, or to history, etc.

a) "Are there 'fountain of youth' nutritional approaches...?"

The "Fountain of Youth" is a reference to ancient legend (see link below)

b) The author refers several times to the ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle.