Recycling programs are designed to reuse materials that might otherwise simply be thrown away. There are many different types of recycling programs. Individual companies, entire industries, municipalities, and countries can all have recycling programs.
Recycling programs include the entire cycle of waste handling from having separate bins for different types of waste, to sorting, collection, and processing of recyclables.
The effectiveness of such programs varies with type of resource, type of implementation, economic conditions, and local situations. For example, aluminium recycling is effective because the cost of new materials is greater than the cost of recycled materials. Paper recycling is generally effective in both reducing the amount going to landfills and end users buying recycled paper products.