Much happened in the last four centuries of the Middle Ages. The following outline will include some of the more important and pivotal events beginning in 1066.
1066 - William the Conqueror invades and conquers England, bringing an end to Anglo-Saxon rule and ushering in the beginning of Norman power.
1075 - Pope Gregory VII issues the Ductatus Papae, signifying the height of Catholic reform for the High Middle Ages.
1077 - Holy Roman Emperor Herny IV admits defeat in the longstanding investiture controversy, giving the Pope significant power in European politics.
1095 - Pope Urban launches the First Crusade to the Holy Land.
1122 - The Concordat of Worms finally brings the investiture struggle to a definitive end.
1147 - The Second Crusade begins. This is the first of several crusades in which European kings lead their armies to the Holy Land.
1154 - Common law is established in England.
1171 - English occupation of Ireland begins.
1189 - The Third Crusade begins. It is led by King Richard I of England in a failed attempt to recapture Jerusalem.
1202 - The Fourth Crusade leads to the sacking of Venice.
1209 - The Franciscan order is founded.
1205 - The Magna Carta is written and sealed by King John of England.
1273 - The Ninth Crusade, the last crusade in the Holy Land, comes to an end.
1307 - The Great Western Schism begins, dividing the papacy and causing decades of internal strife within Catholicism.
1347 - The Black Death begins. This disease ravages Europe, possibly reducing the population by as much as fifty percent and throwing society into chaos.
1381- The Peasants' Revolt in England leads to societal reforms.
1415 - The Battle of Agincourt marks a turning point in the Hundred Years' War in favor of the English.
1434 - The Medicis become the most powerful family in Florence.
1439 - Johannes Gutenberg invents the movable-type printing press. This invention leads to the faster dissemination of information, helping to foster the spread of the Reformation movement in the next century.
1453 - Constantinople is captured by the Turks, marking the final end of the Byzantine Empire.
1455 - The War of the Roses begins over control of the English Throne. It lasts for thirty-two years.
1492 - The Moors are completely expelled from Spain, marking the end of the Reconquista and the unification of Spain.
1494 - The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed by Portugal and Spain, defining the parts of the Americas, Africa, and the Indies that each nation can colonize.