Provide an outline of the history of the Middle Ages from 1066–1500 AD.

Quick answer:

The Middle Ages saw many pivotal events between 1066 and 1500. This included numerous shifts in political power, several Crusades, reforms and struggles within the Church, and many wars. This period began with the Norman conquest of England and ended with the European "discovery" of the New World.

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Much happened in the last four centuries of the Middle Ages. The following outline will include some of the more important and pivotal events beginning in 1066.

1066 - William the Conqueror invades and conquers England, bringing an end to Anglo-Saxon rule and ushering in the beginning of Norman power.

1075 - Pope Gregory VII issues the Ductatus Papae, signifying the height of Catholic reform for the High Middle Ages.

1077 - Holy Roman Emperor Herny IV admits defeat in the longstanding investiture controversy, giving the Pope significant power in European politics.

1095 - Pope Urban launches the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

1122 - The Concordat of Worms finally brings the investiture struggle to a definitive end.

1147 - The Second Crusade begins. This is the first of several crusades in which European kings lead their armies to the Holy Land.

1154 - Common law is established in England.

1171 - English occupation of Ireland begins.

1189 - The Third Crusade begins. It is led by King Richard I of England in a failed attempt to recapture Jerusalem.

1202 - The Fourth Crusade leads to the sacking of Venice.

1209 - The Franciscan order is founded.

1205 - The Magna Carta is written and sealed by King John of England.

1273 - The Ninth Crusade, the last crusade in the Holy Land, comes to an end.

1307 - The Great Western Schism begins, dividing the papacy and causing decades of internal strife within Catholicism.

1347 - The Black Death begins. This disease ravages Europe, possibly reducing the population by as much as fifty percent and throwing society into chaos.

1381- The Peasants' Revolt in England leads to societal reforms.

1415 - The Battle of Agincourt marks a turning point in the Hundred Years' War in favor of the English.

1434 - The Medicis become the most powerful family in Florence.

1439 - Johannes Gutenberg invents the movable-type printing press. This invention leads to the faster dissemination of information, helping to foster the spread of the Reformation movement in the next century.

1453 - Constantinople is captured by the Turks, marking the final end of the Byzantine Empire.

1455 - The War of the Roses begins over control of the English Throne. It lasts for thirty-two years.

1492 - The Moors are completely expelled from Spain, marking the end of the Reconquista and the unification of Spain.

1494 - The Treaty of Tordesillas is signed by Portugal and Spain, defining the parts of the Americas, Africa, and the Indies that each nation can colonize.

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