Discuss why, if there are no chronic toxicities directly related to the
use of opioids, opioid dependence would be a problem for users in the
The World Health Organization (WHO) says of opioid dependence:
The main objectives of treating and rehabilitating persons with opioid dependence are to reduce dependence on illicit drugs; to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by the use of illicit opioids, ....
The WHO defines opioid dependence as "long term brain disease." Brain disease impacts every element of life and living as cognition and memory are impaired limiting recall of information, daily function, educational development, and logical thinking processes.
I think as well the social long-term impact of dependence is important to focus on. Let us not forget that the dependence and the crime that often accompanies that dependence, together with the behaviour exhibited by somebody who is addicted, effectively isolates them from those who are nearest and dearest, making it harder for them to access the support they need if they were to try and quit.
Because you need more and more of the drug, and the financial drain of such a habit is a direct cause of economic crime and violence. It's very difficult to maintain social relationships and employment status while an opiod user. There is also a large disincentive to quitting because the addiction is so powerful and the withdrawals so painful and unpleasant.
If nothing else, opioid dependence would be a problem for users for legal and economic reasons. A person who becomes dependent on opioids is going to have to spend a lot of money and risk getting in trouble with the law in order to keep on getting the (likely increasing) amount of drugs that he or she needs in order to feed the addiction.
The things the user does while "high" are also likely to lead to problems such as job loss or damage to the user's relations with their family and friends.