James Joyce

James Joyce book cover
Start Your Free Trial

Is Stephen Dedaelus, in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, a voluntary or involuntary exile?

Expert Answers info

Ashley Kannan eNotes educator | Certified Educator

calendarEducator since 2009

write16,848 answers

starTop subjects are Literature, History, and Social Sciences

As Stephen comes of age in Joyce's work, he begins to fully grasp the implications of his "non- serviam credo."  The establishment of his identity and his sense of self allow him to view both himself and his world in different contexts.  As he awakens through age to embrace his conception of himself as an artist, he begins to see that he is...

(The entire section contains 191 words.)

Unlock This Answer Now


check Approved by eNotes Editorial


kc4u | Student

Stephen, the boy-hero of Joyce's novel, is the author's alter-ego growing in Dublin from his nursery through his boyhood and adolescence to his coming of age. It is a novel of growth that ends with Stephen's decision to leave Ireland in order to search for his dreams of art and aesthetics. He is, in that sense, a voluntary exile. But the intellectual as well as religio-philosophical awakening that leads to his decision of going abroad to Europe has been a highly complex and conflicting process through shades of many voluntary and involuntary encounters. The rebellion of Stephen against the conventions of Catholic fath and Church education, and against the conventions of Irish culture forms the background to his ultimate option to be an exile committed to summons of art.

check Approved by eNotes Editorial