In the poem "The Wife's Lament", whom does the wife refer as "her lord"?
Depending on the translation, it usually refers to her husband. Richard Hammer's translation is the most critically acclaimed. The speaker of the poem is a wife who is suffering in exile from her husband and people. The first part of the poem suggests that the wife married into an enemy clan that has not received her in a friendly manner. She accuses her husband's family of plotting to separate her and her husband.
her husband may have committed a crime because he is sent to a distant place, and she is banished to a forest where she lives alone. There, the wife mourns her loss of her husband and home. She ends her lament believing that her husband feels grief just as she does.