In the poem "Same Song" by Pat Mora, how do you interpret line 12: “not fair”? What two meanings could the word fair have here?

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There is a pun, or double meaning, to be found here in Pat Mora's use of the word "fair." Look back at the phrasing against which it is juxtaposed: the daughter is looking into the "mirror, mirror." This familiar phrasing evokes the fairy tale of Snow White, who was deemed the "fairest one of all" by her stepmother's mirror. As is made clear in the story, a significant part of Snow White's beauty is due to her extremely pale, flawless skin, which meets a particular Western beauty standard. In this poem, the twelve year old girl is expressing, as she looks into the mirror, the complaint that her life is not "fair," in the sense of being unjust. But tied up in this is also the suggestion that it is not "fair" or just that her skin itself is not "fair." She wishes that her skin was whiter than it is and feels that she is not as beautiful as she could be because of her darker skin.

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The word "fair" has two possible meanings as you say.  One has to do with skin, one has to do with life as a whole.

When we say someone has fair skin, we of course mean that their skin is pretty white.  It is not a pejorative term like saying someone is pale.  Instead, it is complimentary, meaning that their skin looks nice (obviously, this is only applicable to "white" people).  The daughter is pretty critical of the way she looks and so she could be looking at her skin and being unhappy because her skin is not fair.

On the other hand, the word "fair" can refer to live in general and the daughter's place in life.  She wants so badly to look some particular way but she can't.  It's not fair, it's not right.  In this sense, then, the word "fair" (or "not fair") is referring to her general dissatisfaction with her looks.

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