When an author uses "sensory details," he is using the five senses - sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste - to give the reader a detailed and imaginative view of a scene.
In "The Cask of Amontillado," Poe wants the reader to sense how dark, damp, and creepy the vaults are. He uses sight when he describes piles of bones at the entrance to the catacombs.
Poe uses touch when Montresor asks Fortunato to touch the wall to feel the "niter" or the calcium buildup from the damp on the walls, saying "It is very damp."
Poe uses smell when he describes "the foulness of the air."
Poe uses sound when he describes "a succession of loud and shrill screams," as Montresor begins to bury Fortunato.
Finally, Poe uses taste when he describes the warmth of the Medoc wine he drinks with Fortunato as they walk.