Please summarize Chapter 3 ("Evil Air") of the book 1493 by Charles Mann. 

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Mann discusses the effects of malaria on development in the New World. Beginning with a bit of detective work—Mann finds evidence that early Spanish explorers contracted malaria in the memoirs of Cristóbal Colón (Christopher Columbus)—Mann argues that the debilitating effects of malaria, which was brought by Europeans and spread throughout much of North America, led European colonizers to create “extractive states.” These were developments in which indigenous labor, deemed expendable, was used to extract raw materials from regions that the disease made largely uninhabitable for Europeans.

After a detailed explanation of how malaria affects the body, illustrated by seventeenth-century descriptions of malaria attacks, Mann describes the prevalence of malaria in England in the 17th and 18th centuries, and cites the disease as a possible reason for much immigration to the New World (he cites historian David Hacker Fischer’s claim that 60% of the first wave of English emigrants...

(The entire section contains 3 answers and 685 words.)

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