When Scout asks her father about what Cecil Jacobs said about defending "n-----s," he first corrects her language, and then explains to her why he is defending Tom Robinson (chapter 9). He tries to explain the concept of personal integrity and tells her that she will be hearing “some ugly talk.” He specifically asks her not to get into any fist fights over it. The next day, she confronts Cecil but resists the impulse to hit him.
It was the first time I ever walked away from a fight. Somehow, if I fought Cecil I would let Atticus down.
Scout shows that she understands on some level that this case is important to her father, and that she has a role to play in it.
Over Christmas, when the family visits Finch's Landing, Scout has a similar disagreement with Cousin Francis, and she punches him in the face twice. After her uncle Jack punishes her, they talk about it later. She implores him not to tell her father what she was fighting about.
He—he asked me one time not to let anything I heard...
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