There are numerous different types of maps and projections that can be used to aid navigation. Different types have different advantages as well as disadvantages compared to each other. Below are several of the more common ones.
Topographical Maps: These maps are useful in that they use contour lines to show local elevations of the earth's surface. These are useful in that they can help you navigate through or around difficult terrain. However, they have the disadvantage of not necessarily being current. Occasionally, there are changes to a landscape that may not appear in a topographical that predates these changes. Also, these maps can be hard to read for someone without experience with them.
Thematic Maps: This type of map shows geographic information concerning a particular theme. There are many types of thematic maps, and just about every type of map can be considered thematic. Examples include navigational charts, cadastral maps, aviation route charts, or maps relating to a particular geographical feature such as caves. These maps can be helpful if you are navigating along some specific feature, such as deep rivers. However, they are usually limited in their scope and are not comprehensive portrayals of the landscape.
GPS: Global Positioning Systems are useful in that they are adaptive to your current location and can be programmed with useful and detailed navigational information. However, they are reliant on technology that usually requires a satellite or cellular connection. In many off-grid locations, GPS navigation becomes unusable if no connection exists.
Physical Maps: These maps indicate landforms, such as forests, mountains, and deserts. By indicating the local terrain, these maps are useful in planning travel by helping people seek out or avoid certain terrain types. However, like topographical maps, physical maps may not always be completely up to date.
Political Maps: Political maps indicate where governmental boundaries are. This is useful because political boundaries are often invisible on the ground. Without these maps, it could be difficult to tell what political jurisdiction you are in. They also label the locations of significant cities and towns. However, when political boundaries change, these maps become out of date.
Whatever the map, it's important to remember that by portraying a three-dimensional landscape in two dimensions, size, shapes, and distances will be distorted. Therefore, even the best maps are less than completely accurate.