Benito Mussolini's ideas on Fascism are set out in the 1932 essay "The Doctrine of Fascism," written by Mussolini himself and the philosopher Giovanni Gentile. Three of the central principles discussed in the essay are the revolutionary nature of Fascism, the primacy of the State, and human inequality.
Mussolini asserts that the politics of the Right are often seen as reactionary. Fascism, however, is not a reaction against anything, it is unique and original, the politics for a new age. Marxism, Liberalism and Democracy are all doctrines belonging to the nineteenth century: the twentieth century will be Fascist.
Fascism, according to Mussolini, is intrinsically hostile to individualism. The individual matters only in so far as he contributes to the State. Fascism is ideologically totalitarian, elevating the State to a position of supreme importance:
The Fascist conception of the State is all-embracing; outside of it no human or spiritual values can exist, much less have value.
Although Fascism is similar to Communism in its conception of an all-powerful State, it differs sharply from any Socialist philosophy in its affirmation of "the irremediable, fruitful and beneficent inequality of men." Fascists believe that people are naturally unequal and that equality is not only an unachievable goal but an undesirable one. Fascism entails a complete rejection of Democracy, both as a philosophical concept and as a political mechanism. The majority has no authority "through the mere fact of being a majority" and cannot rule society either directly or through representatives.