Translation is the process of decoding messenger RNA (mRNA), which is made during the process of transcription. During transcription, the appropriate section of DNA is expose and an mRNA template (a copy) is made. This strand of mRNA leaves the nucleus through a nuclear pore; in the cytosol a ribosome attaches to the mRNA and translates it, reading the three-base codons and using them to assemble a polypeptide, which is a chain of amino acids put together in a specific order.
The polypeptide is, therefore, technically the final product of translation. When the polypeptide is complete, the ribosome releases it and it is passed to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is folded and any necessary accessory groups are added, completing the polypeptide and turning it into a functional protein.