Please explain the poem "The Eagle" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson.

In "The Eagle," Tennyson uses literary devices including personification, allusion, and hyperbole to present a dramatic picture of an eagle plummeting to the sea from a high crag.

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The critical consensus is that the eponymous eagle represents the figure of Arthur Henry Hallam, a young English poet and close friend of Tennyson. Hallam died young, and his untimely death devastated Tennyson, causing him no end of grief for the remainder of his long life. Tennyson wrote about his friend extensively in his long poem "In Memoriam A.H.H". But he also wrote about him in "The Eagle", a very short, six-line poem, whose brevity perfectly mirrors the short length of time that Hallam spent upon this earth.

In the poem, the speaker recounts the flight of an eagle as he swoops down from the fastness of his mountain-top crag to the "wrinkled sea" beneath him. A number of literary critics and scholars have interpreted this as an allegory on Hallam's short life. Having reached the heights of poetic achievement—as represented by the crag close to the sun—he then swooped down to the "wrinkled sea" of death.

Throughout his short life, Hallam had soared high like an eagle. But now the time has come for him to leave the fastness of the mountain, the crag on which his whole life has been built, to embark upon his final journey. That he should fall "like a thunderbolt" further emphasizes how high up in the world he was, as if he lived among the clouds.

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This six-line poem presents a moment in time. The eagle is high up on a crag, watching the sea. Suddenly, he plummets down. We are not told why, and this is all that happens during the course of the poem.

Since the story is commonplace and far from complex, the poet engages the reader's attention with striking images and literary devices. The eagle is personified, first by being called "he," then by being given hands instead of talons or claws. Even his mountain has "walls," like a castle. The eagle, however, is something more than human. He is a force of nature, compared in the final simile to a thunderbolt. In Greek mythology, Zeus, king of the gods, would hurl thunderbolts down from Mount Olympus. Zeus's bird was, of course, the eagle, associated more with divinity than humanity.

The eagle is also placed in the center of the world, as he is in the center of the poem. He is "Ring'd with the azure world," as though the world is only a bright blue frame for his majestic picture. Finally, there is the hyperbole of "Close to the sun," which emphasizes the great height at which the eagle sits, though he is only fractionally nearer the sun than the sea into which he plummets so dramatically.

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Alfred, Lord Tennyson, wrote "The Eagle" in 1851, a Romantic poem, though a late one in terms of the Romantic movement in Britain. Romantic poets often imbued their poems with a reverence for nature, and this poem was inspired by a sight Tennyson encountered on one of his many walks.

In two rhymed tercets (three-line stanzas), Tennyson captures the image of a lone eagle perched on high, surveying the world beneath him. The landscape is described in Romantic terms using "azure" to describe the sky and "wrinkled" to describe the texture of the sea. Tennyson's speaker observes sky, mountains, and sea, three vast and majestic elements of the natural world.

In the final line, the speaker observes the eagle's dive with a simile: "like a thunderbolt he falls." Thunderbolts are associated with God or the gods, and here, Tennyson's diction elevates the eagle to their powerful realm.

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This imagery poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson originates from his experiences while traveling as a young man in the Pyrenees.  The poem was written before Tennyson was respected as one of the great poets of his time. 

In his journals, Tennyson notes a valley, which he said was his favorite place in the world.  This valley was in the Pyrenees where he was able to view the great predator of the skies: the eagle. Inspired to write about his sightings of the bird, Tennyson creates a single precise image of the bird looking down at a body of water. 

The poet uses alliteration, personification, and a simile to enhance the reader’s experience of watching the bird.  A very short poem but a great example of literary devices---this is Tennyson’s “The Eagle.”

1st Stanza

He clasps the crag with crooked hands;
Close to the sun in lonely lands,
Ringed with the azure world, he stands.

The poem begins by using alliteration to emphasize the stark and oddly shaped talons of the eagle: clasps, crap, crooked, and close.

The bird holds on to a rock with his oddly shaped claws. This would indicate that the eagle is high on a rocky mountain ledge.

The mountainous rock appears high up seeming to touch the sun. The place where the observer finds himself is far away from civilization: the lonely lands. The loneliness may also be a commentary on the life of the eagle as a solitary bird who lives and travels alone. The eagle magnificiently stands surrounded by the bluest sky.  


2nd Stanza

The wrinkled sea beneath him crawls;
He watches from his mountain walls,
And like a thunderbolt he falls.

The observer must also be high enough to look down where he sees the water is moving and appears almost like it has wrinkles [both personification and a metaphor]. The water does not rush but rather crawls.  The eagle also looks down from his lofty mountain rock and watches the water.  He may be searching for a fish who is too close to the surface. Suddenly, just like a thunderbolt or lightning from the sky, he falls or soars into the sky [The perfect simile for the king of the skies]. 


The author encapsulates this tiny segment of nature: a majestic eagle diving from his lofty throne.  Tennyson’s youthful image is forever memorialized with complete exactness. 

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