Please explain question 69 in Summa Theologica.

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Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologica (written in mid-13th century Italy) is intended as a treatise to explain Christianity to students of theology. It is widely acknowledged to be one of the most influential tracts addressing baptism. Question 69 includes 10 articles on the effects of baptism, include the following (written...

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Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologica (written in mid-13th century Italy) is intended as a treatise to explain Christianity to students of theology. It is widely acknowledged to be one of the most influential tracts addressing baptism. Question 69 includes 10 articles on the effects of baptism, include the following (written as a dialogue, in which Aquinas provides objections to each point, and then a rebuttal of those objections):

1.) Whether all sins are taken away at baptism. On which point, Aquinas concludes that "by baptism, all sins are loosed."

2.) Whether man is freed by baptism from all debt of punishment due to sin. Aquinas states that man is forgiven by God, but is indebted to man, and so "it is right that they should be edified at his punishment."

3.) Whether baptism should take away the penalties of sin that belong to this life. Aquinas concludes that these sins will not be taken away until the resurrection.

4.) Whether grace and virtues are bestowed on man by baptism. Aquinas avows that concupiscence and its attendant evils are indeed taken away by baptism.

5.) Whether certain acts of the virtues are fittingly set down as effects of baptism (namely, incorporation of Christ, enlightenment, and fruitfulness). Aquinas clarifies that baptism effects man's good works, not his begetting of Christian others.

6.) Whether children receive grace and virtue in baptism. Aquinas concedes that children don't approach baptism with free will; however, children are not deprived of baptism's positive effects.

7.) Whether the effect of baptism is to open the gates of the heavenly kingdom. Aquinas confirms that baptism does not secure entry to heaven, though they are not spared earthly punishments.

8.) Whether baptism has an equal effect in all. Aquinas confirms that all receive complete remission of sins, but some make greater or lesser use of it.

9.) Whether insincerity hinders the effect of baptism. Aquinas concludes on this point that insincerity does constitute sin, which is forgiven by baptism.

10.) Whether baptism produces its effect when insincerity ceases. Aquinas concludes that when insincerity ceases, the sins are forgiven. Subsequent sins are forgiven by penance, not baptism.

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