The classical period of Greek history lasted from the beginning of the 6th century till the end of the 4th century BCE. The Parthenon was built during this period and the greatest mathematicians and philosophers lived in this Golden Age of Greek history.
Some of the well known personalities of the Golden Age period were the great dramatists Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Euripides, Menander, and Sophocles. These great dramatists performed at the theatre of Dionysios at the foot of the Acropolis. The comedies and tragedies they wrote have provided us an important amount of information regarding the history, the ancient life and the psychology of the ancient Greeks.
This period of time was also characterized by the military and political tensions between Sparta and Athens. In the 5th century BCE, the Athenian economy benefited from Solon's measures that brought political and economic adjustments.
Between the 6th to the 4th century BCE the Athenian Empire, which was formed from 172 tribute-paying states, was dominating the Aegean. In this period, the Athenian Empire developed in terms of politics, literature, philosophy, the arts and architecture, becoming a source of inspiration for the entire world.
The development of Athens in the 5th century BCE created a menacing feeling in states like Sparta. These disagreements between Sparta and Athens led to the Peloponnesian War, that lasted 27 years and was known as the longest war of the antiquity.