Please analyse the terms 'roughened form', retardation', and disordering of rythm' used by Viktor Sklovsky in his essay "Art as Technique"(1917)
retardation means lingering the attention of the reader in the text.
Retardation: Our normal perception is automatised by habits. When we perceive something, it expresses many wonders to us. And gradually this impression gets lost.We become habituaed with things around us. Our perception becomes limited. We perceive a mango tree merely as a mango tree. And the theory of formalism says that our perception of art is made cimplicated willingly so that we perceive slowly. The slowliness is crested by literary devices, figures of speech, narrative techniques, different point of views etc. The literary language as it is different from ordinary language compells us to meditate on the forms of literay texts. All the faculties of our mind are engaged in meditation and contemplation.The texture of a word in poetry makes us feel, its every word makes us slow.
Disordered Rhythm: There isorder in art. But that order is not the order which is maintaine in reality. Sklovsky gives an example in his essay Art as a Technique of Greek temple.It is an art but not a single coloumn of that temple is in its proper order. In this way the rhythm of poetry is disordered. As the purpose of poetic rhythm is to deautomatise our perception so it must not be in the order that we are genarally accustomed to. Sklovsky’s point is that new rhythm defamiliarises the world to us. This is the purpose of formalism.
Roughened form: The retardation and the disorded rythms in the literary pieces give it a roughened form. The form is not smooth as our daily life. It gives us newer views, looks and peceptions about life and literature. This roughness differentiates poetry from other writings : history or journal etc as claimed by Formalism.