In the play Trifles I need to understand what elements about the play to analyze.

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You can analyze the theme, the social comment, the rightness of the playwright’s point of view, the feminist statement it makes that made its revival in the 1970’s possible—in other words, you can place the play into the social context of its composition—this approach would require your researching the American history that generated this work.  Another area for analysis is the style of the play—how does Glaspell use language, dramatic structure, characterization, etc. to tell her story?  This approach would require your examining the dramaturgy and linguistic style of the work, and would benefit from a comparison with a colleague, notably Eugene O’Neill.  One final area of inquiry would be the moral or ethical standpoint of the play, which (while the protagonist is a sympathetic character) does advocate “justifiable homicide.”  Do you agree with this ethical, moral stance?  So the best way to approach the analysis of the play is to determine what area you would like to explore—historical, stylistic, or philosophical.