Animal Farm Questions and Answers
by George Orwell

Animal Farm book cover
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How do the animals and people represent historical figures in Animal Farm?

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Orwell wrote Animal Farm as a satire on the Russian Revolution and Communism in general. The events in the book are roughly parallel to the real-life events in Russia, and so many of the characters are stand-ins for real figures. For example, Old Major represents Karl Marx, while Snowball and Napoleon represent Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin. Their contentious relationship is based on reality.

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